The Institute conducts a wide range of research projects in the areas of the legal framework for water resource management, institutional, economic, and environmental management of water resources at the national and regional levels, as well as the study and definition of the main and indirect economic sectors and organizations involved in natural resource management. At the same time, work continues to establish short-term, medium-term, and long-term goals and objectives in the field of climate change and its impact on the water resources of our country and region.
Among the research activities of our institute, a significant role is played by the work on the Zarafshan River in the central part of the country. For example, to model and optimize the water-energy-food-ecology connectivity under various climate change scenarios, a database has been created in the Zarafshan river region, and hydrological and meteorological data have been collected, to characterize the Zarafshan region.
Also, studies and analyses of water use in the northern part of Tajikistan in areas such as Aini, Penjikent, and Gorno Mastchokh districts were carried out. As a result, hierarchies of directions and parties are determined and intersectoral properties of water resources management in the area of the Zarafshan River.
Figure 1. Zaravshan river basin, credit to https://www.flickr.com/photos/zoienvironment/7525831336
The institute also actively engaged in the study and proper use of water resources. Considering the need to manage the totality of water resources and their main organizers, strong currents, a study of the literature was carried out to analyze and assess the natural and climatic state of the regions that form the currents of rivers in Tajikistan. First of all, this is the prevention or reduction of the risks of dangerous hydrological incidents in new climatic conditions, and the economy largely depends on effective monitoring of the state of water bodies, legislation in the field of water, and the specifics of water requirements and provision. A significant change in amplitude is characterized by an increase and a tendency to increase water with the expansion of rocks; the strong influence of wear; poor development of hidden surfaces of plants; heavy spring rains and mudflows, as well as anthropogenic activity, are the causes of increased pollution and significant precipitation in the rivers of Tajikistan Based on foregoing, the targeted implementation of a combination of scientific research and the practicality of managing water channels in water bodies of the Republic of Tajikistan is justified.
Another part of the Institute's activities is the study of water bodies in the foothill areas since, given the large presence of water bodies in the foothill areas of the country, this direction is very important. An analysis of the state of reservoirs in the foothills and mountainous regions of Tajikistan was carried out. Potential problems of water resources and water supply, the orography of sections of individual rivers, the conditions of climatic development, and other processes were also studied in the foothills and mountainous regions of Tajikistan. At the moment, various processes that take place in reservoirs have been studied.
The genesis of strong currents depends on their types, regions of formation, periods of action, and features of the signs of consequences, speed, directions, nature, level, and scale of their occurrence through mountain rivers from the structures of the river network and the drainage region and their morphological properties, which include dangerous natural signs (snow avalanches, mudflows, landslides, erosion, etc.) and is taken into account by the processes of the influence of wind on the wear of mountains, the hydrological order and the processes of constant and temporary flows; the formation and order of the inflow of precipitation from permanent and temporary channels; climate conditions; geology, tectonics, and geomorphology; the level of soil and soil of plants, as well as the morphometric features of rivers, including length, fall, slopes, purification of the rivers themselves, etc. Thus, scientific research is carried out considering that strong current in general play a role in the following factors: metrological and soil-geological terrain, plant layers, anthropogenic influences, and the influence of the inflow of waters of small rivers.
Energetics is one of the main priority areas of our organization because it is the basis for the development and operation of the economies of many predominantly mountainous countries. In addition, the role of energy is versatile. For example, it can be both an independent product and a commodity when it is used in everyday life. It can also be semi-finished products for the production of products in other areas of the national economy. Thus, its benefits can be defined in different ways. The energy sector of Tajikistan is not only the basis for the development of all sectors of the economy of the republic but also the development of an important sector of budget formation. In addition, it plays an important role in health care, education, etc.
All this shows the complexity of modeling the strategic development of the energy sector in Tajikistan. Such existing strategies in the republic are taken into account.
- The basis of energy in Tajikistan is hydropower. The priority project is the Rogun HPP, the construction of which continues in the current conditions.
- In addition to hydropower, there is coal energy, which is of interest due to the development of the coal industry in the republic.
- Taking into account the current environmental requirements, in the energy development strategy, there is a special interest in renewable energy sources (RES), including small hydroelectric power plants (HPPs).
- An important project of Tajikistan's international cooperation in the energy sector is the CASA-1000 project, which makes it possible to transmit electricity to Pakistan (through the territory of Afghanistan). Such cooperation with neighboring states is being restored, and the region's water and energy resources are being used in the energy and irrigation sectors.